## Wednesday, December 10, 2008

### Succincter

'Tis the season to be doing succinct data structures.

[P] My FOCS'08 paper demonstrated how to use recursion to achieve better redundancy. For many fundamental problems, it achieved a redundancy of n / (lg n / t)t bits with query time O(t). The toy problem that people remember from my paper is storing trits: store A[1..n], where A[i] in {1,2,3}, using close to n log23 bits and fast access to A[i].

[Golynski] In SODA'09, Alexander Golynski (PhD from Waterloo, currently at Google NY) showed a remarkable lower bound for succinct data structures. Suppose you want to represent a permutation π such that you can access π(x) and π-1(x) in time t. Then, your data structure needs redundancy Ω(n lg n / t2) bits. In particular, for constant access time, your data structure needs a constant factor more space than the minimum!

This is essentially the first "meaningful" lower bound for succinct data structures. [Gal-Miltersen] did prove a previous lower bound, but for a much harder problem: polynomial evaluation. (For this problem, we believe sublinear query time requires superpolynomial space, so never mind succinct data structures.)

Notice that Golynski's lower bound is much higher than my upper bound for storing trits and other problems. His bound is in fact tight for storing a permutation.

[Viola] Emanuele Viola looks at the trits problem in the bit-probe model and shows that, with bit probe complexity t, the redundancy needs to be at least n / 2O(t). My result implies a redundancy of n / 2O(sqrt{t}) if t is the bit-probe complexity.

As I always want to point out, the true model is the word RAM, but the bit-probe model is sometimes interesting as a mathematical curiosity.

[Mitzenmacher-Wiener] Michael has a student working on an implementation of the results in my paper. You could've guessed it from here, I suppose.

[P.-Thorup] In recent ongoing work, we gave a very strong result for the trits problem: we can achieve a redundancy of exactly 2 bits, with O(1) query time. This completely kills the problem.

In the bit-probe model, it immediately implies an upper bound matching [Viola].

It is not yet clear whether such strong upper bounds can be extended beyond the trits problem (e.g., for dictionaries and arithmetic coding). But we have some ideas and we are working hard on it (i.e. drinking and hiking).

## Monday, December 1, 2008

### B.A.M. 2

The Berkeley Algorithmists' Meeting will continue on Tuesday at 3:30pm.

Scheduling. There have been enough calls to change the time that I will do a recount of the votes and probably change it starting next week. If you would like to come and have not sent me your time constraints, please send them ASAP to mip@alum-mit-edu

Lecture notes. There are definite plans to post lecture notes here, though scheduling constraints will delay this for another week or so.

New topic: Orthogonal Range Queries

I want to spend a couple of meeting talking about range queries, a hugely important topic (in my opinion) that we don't teach too much of. The theory that has developed around this topic is one of the deepest examples of a coherent theory in TCS (maybe close to PCPs, depending on your subjective perception of depth).

Some ideas we will discuss, in an order TBD:

• persistence
• predecessor search (especially van Emde Boas)
• buffer trees
• RMQ
• the 3D structure of Nekrich
• rank/select
• lower bounds